Multi Dynamic Extraction: An Innovative Method to Obtain a Standardized Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Polyphenol Extract from Poplar-Type Propolis to Be Used for Its Anti-Infective Properties. Materials. 12. 3746. 10.3390/ma12223746.
Zaccaria, Vincenzo & Garzarella, Emanuele & Giovanni, Carmen & Galeotti, Fabio & Gisone, Lucia & Campoccia, Davide & Volpi, Nicola & Arciola, Carla & Daglia, Maria.
Antimicrobial activity is a well-known property of propolis, making it a candidate for antimicrobial surfaces in biomedical devices. Nevertheless, large-scale use of propolis as an anti-infective agent is limited by the heterogeneity of its chemical composition and consequent variation in antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the multi-dynamic extraction (M.E.D.) method produces standardized polyphenolic mixtures from poplar-type propolis, with reproducible chemical composition and anti-microbial activity, independently from the chemical composition of the starting raw propolis. Three raw propolis samples, from Europe, America, and Asia, were analyzed for their polyphenol chemical composition by means of HPLC–UV and then combined to obtain three mixtures of propolis, which were submitted to the M.E.D. extraction method. The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of M.E.D. propolis against bacteria and fungi were determined. The three M.E.D. propolis showed similar chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities, exhibiting no relevant differences against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant strains. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of propolis extracts obtained with the M.E.D. method encourages the design of drugs alternative to traditional antibiotics and the development of anti-infective surface-modified biomaterials.