Inconsistent composition, quality, and adulteration plague the market
“Both the season and region in which propolis is collected influence its chemical composition, resulting in variations in biological activity. Significant differences in composition and concentration of certain chemical compounds in propolis make standardization and quality control challenging. In addition, the lack of uniformity in evaluation methodology and analytical techniques, make it extremely difficult to correlate data across the climatic zones.”1
“To make a standardization and quality control of this product is very difficult, particularly if we take into account the quantification of the active substances.” 2
“Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market.” 3
“The genuine article is not easy to identify. Propolis can be more or less any colour from green to red… Bees have even been known to make fraudulent propolis themselves, sometimes exploiting window putty in place of plant buds.”4
1. J Apicultural Res. 2019;58(4): 604–16.
2. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Oct-Dec; 3(4): 479–95.
3. Molecules. 2014;19(7):10208-10217.
4. Chemistry World. 2007 Aug 28.